Data science and machine learning are the key technologies when it comes to the processes and products with automatic learning and optimization to be used in the automotive industry of the future. This article defines the terms “data science” (also referred to as “data analytics”) and “machine learning” and how they are related. In addition, it defines the term “optimizing analytics“ and illustrates the role of automatic optimization as a key technology in combination with data analytics. It also uses examples to explain the way that these technologies are currently being used in the automotive industry on the basis of the major subprocesses in the automotive value chain (development, procurement; logistics, production, marketing, sales and after-sales, connected customer). Since the industry is just starting to explore the broad range of potential uses for these technologies, visionary application examples are used to illustrate the revolutionary possibilities that they offer. Finally, the article demonstrates how these technologies can make the automotive industry more efficient and enhance its customer focus throughout all its operations and activities, extending from the product and its development process to the customers and their connection to the product.
Go machine algorithms which humans can no longer beat. The analysis of large data volumes based on search, pattern recognition, and learning algorithms provides insights into the behavior of processes, systems, nature, and ultimately people, opening the door to a world of fundamentally new possibilities. In fact, the now already implementable idea of autonomous driving is virtually a tangible reality for many drivers today with the help of lane keeping assistance and adaptive cruise control systems in the vehicle.
The fact that this is just the tip of the iceberg, even in the automotive industry, becomes readily apparent when one considers that, at the end of 2015, Toyota and Tesla’s founder, Elon Musk, each announced investments amounting to one billion US dollars in artificial intelligence research and development almost at the same time. The trend towards connected, autonomous, and artificially intelligent systems that continuously learn from data and are able to make optimal decisions is advancing in ways that are simply revolutionary, not to mention fundamentally important to many industries. This includes the automotive industry, one of the key industries in Germany, in which international competitiveness will be influenced by a new factor in the near future – namely the new technical and service offerings that can be provided with the help of data science and machine learning.
This article provides an overview of the corresponding methods and some current application examples in the automotive industry. It also outlines the potential applications to be expected in this industry very soon. Accordingly, sections 2 and 3 begin by addressing the subdomains of data mining (also referred to as “big data analytics”) and artificial intelligence, briefly summarizing the corresponding processes, methods, and areas of application and presenting them in context. Section 4 then provides an overview of current application examples in the automotive industry based on the stages in the industry’s value chain –from development to production and logistics through to the end customer. Based on such an example, section 5 describes the vision for future applications using three examples: one in which vehicles play the role of autonomous agents that interact with each other in cities, one that covers integrated production optimization, and one that describes companies themselves as autonomous agents.
Whether these visions will become a reality in this or any other way cannot be said with certainty at present – however, we can safely predict that the rapid rate of development in this area will lead to the creation of completely new products, processes, and services, many of which we can only imagine today. This is one of the conclusions drawn in section 6, together with an outlook regarding the potential future effects of the rapid rate of development in this area.Gartner uses the term “prescriptive analytics“ to describe the highest level of ability to make business decisions on the basis of data-based analyses. This is illustrated by the question “what should I do?” and prescriptive analytics supplies the required decision-making support, if a person is still involved, or automation if this is no longer the case.The levels below this, in ascending order in terms of the use and usefulness of AI and data science, are defined as follows: descriptive analytics (“what has happened?”), diagnostic analytics (“why did it happen?”), and predictive analytics (“what will happen?”) (see Figure 1). The last two levels are based on data science technologies, including data mining and statistics, while descriptive analytics essentially uses traditional business intelligence concepts (data warehouse, OLAP).
In this article, we seek to replace the term “prescriptive analytics“ with the term “optimizing analytics.“ The reason for this is that a technology can “prescribe” many things, while, in terms of implementation within a company, the goal is always to make something “better” with regard to target criteria or quality criteria. This optimization can be supported by search algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms in nonlinear cases and operation research (OR) methods in – much rarer – linear cases. It can also be supported by application experts who take the results from the data mining process and use them to draw conclusions regarding process improvement. One good example are the decision trees learned from data, which application experts can understand, reconcile with their own expert knowledge, and then implement in an appropriate manner. Here too, the application is used for optimizing purposes, admittedly with an intermediate human step.
Within this context, another important aspect is the fact that multiple criteria required for the relevant application often need to be optimized at the same time, meaning that multi-criteria optimization methods – or, more generally, multi-criteria decision-making support methods – are necessary. These methods can then be used in order to find the best possible compromises between conflicting goals. The examples mentioned include the frequently occurring conflicts between cost and quality, risk and profit, and, in a more technical example, between the weight and passive occupant safety of a body.
These four levels form a framework, within which it is possible to categorize data analysis competence and potential benefits for a company in general. This framework is depicted in Figure 1 and shows the four layers which build upon each other, together with the respective technology category required for implementation.
The traditional Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) includes no optimization or decision-making support whatsoever. Instead, based on the business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modeling, and evaluation sub-steps, CRISP proceeds directly to the deployment of results in business processes. Here too, we propose an additional optimization step that in turn comprises multi-criteria optimization and decision-making support. This approach is depicted schematically in Figure 2.
In applications where a large number of models need to be created, for example for use in making forecasts (e.g., sales forecasts for individual vehicle models and markets based on historical data), automatic modeling plays an important role. The same applies to the use of online data mining, in which, for example, forecast models (e.g., for forecasting product quality) are not only constantly used for a production process, but also adapted (i.e., retrained) continuously whenever individual process aspects change (e.g., when a new raw material batch is used). This type of application requires the technical ability to automatically generate data, and integrate and process it in such a way that data mining algorithms can be applied to it. In addition, automatic modeling and automatic optimization are necessary in order to update models and use them as a basis for generating optimal proposed actions in online applications. These actions can then be communicated to the process expert as a suggestion or – especially in the case of continuous production processes .